By Renate Holub

During this learn, Renate Holub makes an attempt to reclaim Antonio Gramsci's concept from classical Marxism, in its place putting him in a broader eu serious context, along the Frankfurt institution, phenomenology, and sociolinguistics. Holub emphasizes Gramsci's affinities with the cultural theories of the Frankfurt tuition (Horkheimer, Bloch, Brecht, Benjamin), and likewise issues out the hyperlinks among Gramsci's linguistic and phenomenological sorts of wisdom. Holub conveys the conceptual and methodological complexity of his paintings, that's, the writer claims, suitable to the development of today's severe concept.

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Extra resources for Antonio Gramsci: Beyond Marxism and Postmodernism (Critics of the Twentieth Century)

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Each sphere produces, enables and delimits specific sets of action. Whereas the system produces and enables action contexts which resemble Lyotard’s assessment of selfregulated and integrated action contexts, whereby individual choice and action become obsolete, the life-world is capable, according to Habermas, of producing contexts in which agents meet in order to negotiate differences and inequalities against the background of a reciprocally accepted normativity. In Lyotard’s interpretation, the systemic and all-pervasive nature of power 26 INTRODUCTION makes it difficult for producers of knowledge to put up any real or meaningful resistance.

This is so for two reasons: Gramsci’s ideas on literature are closely related to his entire intellectual production, such that a correct reading and interpretation of his writings on the subject would have to take into account his other writings, in particular his view on the relations that obtain between literature and other spheres of human activity. And secondly, it is problematical to assign his literary criticism to the critical-aesthetic realm exclusively, a procedure which has justifiably been criticized.

Gramsci’s analysis of relations of power and the function intellectual activities perform in the complexity of these relations leads him to formulate a theory of the intellectual. This theory contains four major models. I have enumerated them as ‘The traditional intellectual: artist, philosopher, poet’ (Model 1), ‘The “structure of feeling” and “intellectual community”’ (Model 2), ‘The “organic intellectual”, the “new intellectual”, the “critical specialist”’ (Model 3) and ‘The “universal intellectual”’ (Model 4).

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