By Miriam Lichtheim

Chronologically prepared translations of old Egyptian writings shed gentle upon the advance of numerous literary varieties. Bibliogs.

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Extra resources for Ancient Egyptian Literature: Volume I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms (Ancient Egyptian Literature, a Book of Readings)

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D and protect the dead from hunger and thi. rst, Inner . of th~ shedding of earthly fetters in the flight to the sky, the text is a fine piece 0 poetry. I V. A Theological Treatise "THE MEMPHITE THEOLOGY" British Museum No . 498 (Shabaka Stone) The text is carved on a rectsngular slab of black granite, whic h measures 9Z X 137 em . It consists of two horizontal lines , written at the top across the entire width of the stone, and sixty -two columns whi ch begin on the left side. In addition to numerous lacunae, the middle portion of the text, column s twenty-four to forty-seven , has been almost com pletely obliterated owing to the slab 's reuse as a nether millstone.

Eced together from rune the beginning of the text has ~me to ~e~ ~~Iet of the Late Period. r;:. an t~:ed:te of this Instruction, and of the The problem of esta . IS l~g Ptahhotep-has been diSCU9S~d in my related works-~agemm an e tentative conclusions outlined above Introduction. Bnefly res~ted, th . hical works. ) The most are: (I) All three Instructlons ~re Pife~:;~~ is the time of the Fifth plausible date for the Inst~tIc:;: the laner part of the Sixth Dynasty, and for Kagemm an zAs 6 (1940) 3-9 and pl .

E. Devaud, Les Maximes de Ptahhotep (Fribourg, 1916). Z. 2Aba, Les Maximes de Ptahhotep (Prague, 1956) . Sethe, Lesestucke, pp. 36-42 (excerpts). Additional fragments: R. A. Caminos, Literary Fragments in the Hieratic Script (Oxford, 1956), pis. 2~-30. Translation: Gunn, Ptah-Hotep and Ke'gemni, pp, 41-61. Erman, Literature, pp . 54-67. F . Lexa, Enseignement de Ptahhotep et fragment de l'enseignement de Kagemni (Prague, 1928). Idem, "Quelques corJ. A. Wilson in ANET, rections," Griffith Studies, pp.

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