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Extra resources for An Economic History of the USSR, 1917-91
Without big banks socialism would be impossible. The big banks are the state apparatus which we need to bring about socialism, and which we take ready-made from capitalism; our task here is merely to lop off what capitalistically mutilates this excellent apparatus, to make it even bigger, even more democratic, even more comprehensive. Quantity will be transformed into quality. A single State Bank, the biggest of the big, with branches in every rural district, in every factory, will constitute as much as nine-tenths of the socialist apparatus.
But how this was to happen was left undefined. '12 The cure-all was to be 'all power to the Soviets', though how (or whether) they are to operate railways and tanneries is not stated. "3 Perhaps the most complex 'programme' of the months before the seizure of power may be found in Lenin's 'The Impending Catastrophe and How to Combat It', published as a pamphlet at the end of October 1917 and written a month earlier. Ifc begins dramatically with the words 'Unavoidable catastrophe is threatening Russia'.
The trade unions, however, were in these first months not under Bolshevik control, whereas many of the factory committees were. Yet the latter, despite this control, were bound to reflect only the sectional interest of the factory workers. The local leaders had neither the training nor the sense of responsibility to 'supervise' and 'control' production and distribution. They could and did sell off materials, pilfer, disobey instructions. Of course, discipline had to be reimposed. Carr comments that 'as a weapon of destruction workers' control rendered indisputable service to the revolutionary cause'.