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For example, the pronoun él (‘he’, The neo-Gricean pragmatic approach to anaphora ‘him’) has the conventional meaning of ‘third person, singular, masculine, subject pronoun or pronominal object of a preposition’. However, its coreferential interpretation must be ‘implicated’ and inferred or ‘calculated’ in its context of use. According to Grice (1975: 58), utterances with a single meaning can result in diŸerent implicatures depending on the situation in which they are used. For instance, in the following sentence from Green (1989: 26) (cited in Chapter 1, example (2)), several possible implicatures can arise from the pronouns used, depending on the situation, the larger linguistic context, and ultimately, the speaker’s intended meaning: (24) The dean expelled John because he discovered his secret.

7 Whereas the second instance of Luis in (47a) is not interpreted coreferentially with the subject NP Luis, both the overt pronoun él (‘HE’) and the null subject in (47b) give rise to a default interpretation of coreference in the absence of any information to promote an alternative reading. However, native speakers of Spanish found all the NP options in (48) to be acceptable for expressing coreference, even though the repetition of the name Juan may have a ‘bantering eŸect’, as Bolinger (1979) suggests: (48) A pesar de que Juan es listo, {Juan/él/Ø} no logrará In spite of that John is clever, {John/he/pro} not achieve-3sg-fut su meta.

Levinson (1987b: 406) explains: In John came in and he sat down, regardless of the domain of discourse, the coreferential reading is obviously more informative ABOUT JOHN. Indeed the coreferential reading is more informative about John than the non-co-referential reading would be about either referent; it is likely therefore to be a better, more informative interpretation. In other words, from an empirical standpoint, statements receiving coreferential readings are more informative and speciªc than statements receiving noncoreferential ones.

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