By Sergio Pizzini

This day, the silicon feedstock for photovoltaic cells comes from methods that have been initially built for the microelectronic undefined. It covers virtually ninety% of the photovoltaic industry, with mass construction quantity not less than one order of significance higher than these dedicated to microelectronics.

However, it truly is not easy to visualize that this sort of feedstock (extremely natural yet seriously penalized through its excessive strength fee) may possibly stay the one resource of silicon for a photovoltaic marketplace that's in non-stop enlargement, and which has a cumulative development fee in way over 30% within the previous couple of years. even if stories recommend that the silicon proportion will slowly reduce within the subsequent 20 years, discovering the way to manufacture a particular sunlight grade feedstock in huge amounts, at a low-cost whereas keeping the standard wanted, nonetheless is still an important factor. skinny movie and quantum confinement-based silicon cells will be a complementary solution.

Advanced Silicon fabrics for Photovoltaic Applications has been designed to explain the total possibilities of silicon as a multipurpose fabric and covers:

  • Physical, chemical and structural homes of silicon
  • Production routes together with the promise of cost effective feedstock for PV applications
  • Defect engineering and the position of impurities and defects
  • Characterization suggestions, and complex analytical ideas for steel and non-metallic impurities
  • Thin movie silicon and skinny movie sunlight cells
  • Innovative quantum results, and 3rd new release sunlight cells

With contributions from across the world famous specialists, this publication offers a finished research of the state of the art of procedure applied sciences and fabric houses, crucial for somebody drawn to the applying and improvement of photovoltaics.

Chapter 1 Silicon technological know-how and expertise because the historical past of the present and destiny wisdom Society (pages 1–20): Sergio Pizzini
Chapter 2 techniques (pages 21–78): Bruno Ceccaroli and Sergio Pizzini
Chapter three function of Impurities in sunlight Silicon (pages 79–125): Gianluca Coletti, Daniel Macdonald and Deren Yang
Chapter four Gettering methods and the function of prolonged Defects (pages 127–188): Michael Seibt and Vitaly Kveder
Chapter five complex Characterization suggestions (pages 189–214): Anna Cavallini, Daniela Cavalcoli and Laura Polenta
Chapter 6 complicated Analytical suggestions for Solar?Grade Feedstock (pages 215–234): Richard S. Hockett
Chapter 7 Thin?Film Deposition techniques (pages 235–285): J. okay. Rath
Chapter eight Modeling of Thin?Film Deposition techniques (pages 287–310): Carlo Cavallotti
Chapter nine Thin?Film Silicon sunlight Cells (pages 311–353): J. ok. Rath
Chapter 10 leading edge Quantum results in Silicon for Photovoltaic purposes (pages 355–391): Zhizhong Yuan, Aleksei Anopchenko and Lorenzo Pavesi

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Already in 2007 PV surpassed semiconductors in terms of net silicon consumption. Due to the level of required purity, techniques like zone refining and crystallization cannot reach the desirable purity starting from any low-grade feedstock. This is particularly true for contaminants such as the neighbors to silicon in the periodic system. Their respective position in the periodic system makes them electronic dopants and confers on them similar chemical properties making the purification particularly challenging.

Leoni, D. Li, and D. Yang (2002) Dislocation luminescence in nitrogen-doped Czochralski and float zone silicon Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 14, 13247–13254. [59] S. Binetti, S. Pizzini, E. Leoni, R. Somaschini, A. Castaldini, and A. Cavallini (2002) Optical properties of oxygen precipitates and dislocations in silicon Journal of Applied Physics 92, 2437–2445. [60] S. Binetti, A. LeDonne, V. V. Emsev, and S. Pizzini (2003) Effect of high pressure isostatic annealing on oxygen segregation in Czochralski silicon Journal of Applied Physics 94, 74–76.

That is why polysilicon granules made by the FBR method have not gained unanimous recognition in the semiconductor market segment, whereas they are widely accepted and wanted by many customers making crystalline silicon ingots and wafers for solar cells. Small granules are particularly attractive for all continuous-feed processes such as ribbon wafer production or cold crucible (electromagnetic) casting. MEMC and its predecessor Ethyl Corporation have for more than two decades manufactured granular polysilicon by thermal decomposition of monosilane in a FBR at the Pasadena plant (Texas, USA).

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