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Additional info for Advanced Process Control: Beyond Single Loop Control
The output is the value of input RMN. Output RMT from the hand station indicates its remote/local status, with a true value indicating remote. Most hand station blocks provide a lower output limit and an upper output limit. These limits are imposed on the value from input RMN and also on the values speciﬁed by the operators. The function block for the hand station also provides outputs QL and QH, which indicate that the output has been driven to the respective limit. Not all control systems provide a hand station, but most provide the equivalent functionality in manners such as the following: Valve block.
To minimize this wear, the tuning in the ﬂow controller must be relaxed until a small-amplitude cycle appears in the reactor temperature. Usually, the end result is essentially the same as for the temperature-to-temperature cascade. 4. 3 respond to these disturbances. Simple Feedback. 1, the reactor temperature controller has to respond to all disturbances. The cooling media disturbance quickly affects the jacket temperature: • A change in the cooling water supply temperature directly affects the jacket temperature.
In a control system that does not provide a sample-and-hold function block, the equivalent functionality can be implemented using the integrator/totalizer block, as explained in a subsequent section. Special Functions. These include the following, all of which will be described in more detail shortly: Selector (auctioneer). This block (or its equivalent) is required to implement the override control. Cutoff. Two- and three-stage cutoff blocks are commonly provided, although true object-oriented implementations can provide an unlimited number of stages.