By Etienne Nodet

Translated by means of J. Edward Crowley. This radical reconstruction of the origins of Judaism begins by way of gazing that Josephus's resources at the early historical past of Israel don't trust the Bible and that the oldest rabbinic traditions exhibit no signal of a biblical beginning. one other attention-grabbing query is raised by way of the Samaritan declare, on the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, they'd just recently bought the Sabbath from the Jews. From such information, Nodet creates a complete line of argument that unearths significant assets of Judaism, as symbolized within the subtitle of his paintings: Joshua was once the one that validated in the community in writing a statute and a legislations on the Shechem meeting, whereas the Mishnah used to be the final word metamorphosis of traditions introduced from Babylon and mixed with Judaean influences.

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In the final presentation of the book, the difficulty is toned down, since Ezra proclaims the Law between the two missions of Nehemiah, but it was shown above that Ezra and Nehemiah must be historically dissociated. To sum up, the two missions of Nehemiah are difficult to combine, and it is to be feared that the Memoirs are nothing more than a defence of a dissident undertaking in relation to the Persian authority. His justification would then have been based on the appearance of a religious restoration, from which stems Ezra's putting of the Law into effect and the insistence on a reform.

10). The meticulous reconstruction, with all the help coming from Judaea (Neh. 45). Nehemiah is furthermore presented, always implicitly, as the originator of the reorganization of the Temple in the short summary of Neh. 44-47, which paints a picture of an ideal epoch, in the context of lists of notable families and their functions (Neh. 11-12) which extends beyond the epoch of Nehemiah himself. 1). Perhaps this was artificially attributed to Nehemiah, in order to enhance his stature. If there was such an enhancement of Nehemiah's role, there rises again the question raised earlier about the legitimacy in the eyes of the Persian authorities of Nehemiah's work in Jerusalem.

Hengel's "Judentum und Hellenismus'", Kiryat Sefer 46 (1970), pp. 94-99. 44 A Search for the Origins of Judaism Tcherikover47 is especially attentive to the social conflicts: Hellenization was the programme of rich families, and the drama increased when in the name of that aristocracy Jason, the brother of Onias III, usurped the high priesthood and tried to obtain permission from Antiochus for Jerusalem to become a Greek polls, another Antioch (2 Mace. 7-9). The persecution of Antiochus would then be the repression of a revolt of humbler people, mounted by the Hasidaeans against this project of Hellenization.

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