By Roderick Hunt, Alex Brychta

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Among the early most influential models to describe linguistic status were those by Stewart (1962, 1968), who proposes a functional typology which comprises the classifications Standard, Classical, Vernacular, Dialect, Creole, Pidgin and Artificial. g. Indianized English), Interlanguage and Foreigner Talk. 3. Howard Giles’s et al. (1977) concept of “ethnolinguistic vitality” combines the former two components of status with yet another factor, “institutional support” in order to provide a descriptive taxonomy of situational and structural variables which may operate in an intergroup situation and which, as they note, “often dictate the sociopsychological climate in which such relations occur” (1977: 308).

In his discussion, Hymes attaches an additional meaning to Reinecke’s notions of marginality, namely the knowledge concerning Pidgins and Creoles, and he connects this with the hopeful aspiration of the publication of Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (Hymes 1971a) that this “stepchild” to serious scientific or public attention “may prove a Cinderella”. In the last sense in which he understood the term marginal, this wish for a wondrous transformation has certainly come true: the knowledge concerning Pidgins and Creoles has considerably increased in the last three decades and there is a steadily growing body of research on different synchronic aspects of the linguistic structures of Pidgins and Creoles, on their historical development, as well as on sociolinguistic variation and use in their speech communities.

When “Liming”20 i. When Quarrelling j. Telling Jokes k. New Acquaintance l. 1 % * This option was not given in the questionnaire. However, many respondents ticked both Creole and Standard in certain categories. Defining language prestige While most of the Creole/Standard choices confirmed a private/public and formal/informal dichotomy, some of the findings here were nevertheless surprising. Firstly, some categories like “At work, with colleagues”, for instance, displayed a distinct age-grading in the choices made.

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